In recent years, mind-doping has moved from science fiction to commonplace, at least that's what they tell us about US universities. Here is a recent article from the german "Die Zeit" and it is also a scenario discussed in the book "Radical Evolution". Students take cognitive-enhancing drugs like Ritalin (there are many more, it is a hot market) to get ahead of competition during exams. US researchers are now demanding to talk openly about it, and are provocatively proposing to give all students access to such drugs, for equality. Neuro-enhancement will come, the only question is when, how and of course the price.
This is scary, not just because it feels not right to a lot of people. It also says that there will be a more direct mean to turn money into success. If you are rich, you can afford the best drugs to make you more able to perform, to concentrate on only one thing, and so on.
But maybe, hopefully, this is not the only road this can go down. Paul Graham recently talked about why he thinks a successful society relies less on short-term evaluations like exams and more on actual, long-term successes like finishing a project at work or founding a startup. A society should define its success in keeping direct influence from money to success down. He sees a difference in the US a couple decades ago to the US now - money hogs like elite universities and big corporations have become a little less relevant (meaning: they don't hold the monopoly on the road to success anymore) *.
There are some drugs that might translate into medium-term success - for instance, Provigil lets you depend less on sleep and is taken by military pilots. But for these things I see a reasonable middle ground. People who overdose will not have long-term success. It's just like workaholics tend to break down after some time.
I hope that the trend Paul describes is real and will hold. Like all effects we have on the world should be valued more by their sustainability, we also need to regard human work success under the view of sustainability. I don't see a drug at the horizon that not just makes you a better performer, but more "intelligent". For me, intelligence is a long-term concept.
* Of course Paul promotes startups as the new thing in the rest of this article. He is advertising his startup seed company. But let's not bash him for that right now. I like to think of "startup" as a broad term, and be less enthusiastic about them how they are today and then Paul actually sounds reasonable most of the time.